Tags: ccna, study checklist
Welcome to Part 2 of Objective 4: Configure, verify, and troubleshoot basic router operation and routing on Cisco routers. Don’t forget Objective 4 – Part 1.
Be able to compare and contrast the capabilities and idiosyncrasies of common routing protocols, especially:
• RIPv1 and RIPv2
You should know details like:
• The metrics and routing algorithm that each protocol uses
• Which protocols are classless and which are classful
• How to enable each protocol globally and then how to enable each protocol on an interface
• Each protocol’s default administrative distance
For example, how does OSPF select the designated router on a segment? On a related note, what determines the OSPF router ID? Can you interpret the show ip ospf neighbor command output?
Quick tutorial. Here’s how to enable OSPF and assign the router to an area:
Router(config)#router ospf 1
Router(config-router)#network 192.168.5.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 (yes, you use wildcard mask here)
Here’s how to enable EIGRP globally and enable it on an interface:
router(config) # router eigrp [autonomous-system]
router (config-router) # network x.x.x.x
router (config-router) # network y.y.y.y
Know how to set up a hyperterminal connection to a router or a switch, and the required settings for the serial connection it uses. Hint: Continue Reading Troy’s checklist for preparing for the CCNA: Objective 4 – part 2…
Tags: ccna, study checklist
Welcome to to this week’s exciting double feature. Today we’ll dive into what you need to know in Objective 4: Configure, verify, and troubleshoot basic router operation and routing on Cisco routers. There’s so much material here that I’ve broken it up into two posts. Get off the Internet and let’s get started!
(Here’s the previous coverage of Objective 1, Objective 2 and Objective 3. The full list of CCNA objectives is at https://cisco.hosted.jivesoftware.com/community/certifications/ccna/ccna_exam?view=overview.)
For Objective 4, you need to know how routers handle and alter the packets they receive. Specifically, you should understand which addresses in the packet are changed by the router (MAC addresses), and which remain the same in the routing process (source and destination IP addresses).
You should be able to read a routing table and pull information out, such as:
- The meaning of the codes next to each entry (C, R, S, I, etc). These codes indicate the method by which the route was learned. When you run the command on a router, there is a legend (a key) at the beginning that explains the codes, but that legend may be truncated from the output shown on the exam (those sneaky rascals!)
- The meaning of all that stuff in brackets next to each route, i.e. [160/5]. Answer: the left side of the slash is the administrative distance (AD) and the right side is the route metric.
For a more in-depth review, study the Cisco command reference for show ip route and related commands.
You should know what a default route is and how to configure one. You also know when it is appropriate to use them (on edge routers or routers with only one connection to the rest of the network, and thus only one route to anything). You should also know that a default route’s main benefit is to reduce the number of routes in the routing table.
You should be familiar with the concept of route redistribution, its purpose, and how it is configured. You should also know how to alter the default behavior of route redistribution by using distribution lists. Make sure that you understand to use an access list to control the redistribution, but apply the list as a distribute list under the configuration of the routing protocol as shown below (taken from show run). In this example, we have instructed the router to only redistribute the network 0.0.0.0 and 10.108.0.0. and deny everything else:
access-list 10 permit 0.0.0.0
access-list 10 permit 10.108.0.0
access-list 10 deny 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.255
router eigrp 1
distribute-list 10 in
You should understand basic operation of the internals of the router. Specifically, you should know what the following terms and concepts mean, how they all work together, and what is stored in each location:
• Running configuration
• Startup configuration
You should be familiar with possible ports you might find on a router (Serial, BRI, FastEthernet, etc.), and what type of cable is required to connect various devices (straight-through, crossover, rollover/console). (This is also covered in Objective 2.)
Understand how the following mechanisms work:
• Split horizon
• Poison reverse
• Triggered updates
• Count to infinity
• Gateway of last resort
Know how to configure a router from start to finish. This topic is an excellent one to practice in real life. If you don’t have the gear to practice with, get a lab simulator – I personally recommend the Kaplan IT CCNA simulator.
Here are some good examples of basic router configurations:
• Set a Telnet password
• Set an encrypted password
• Configure an IP address on an interface and enable the interface
• Enable a routing protocol on an interface
Very Important: Know your command prompts and the commands for getting in and out of the various prompt levels. Know what commands and functions can be performed at the various prompts. Always check the command AND the prompt in output. Careless errors can cost you.
Practice, practice, practice!!! You will not have time to figure out how to do these operations on the exam; you only have time to do them. On the exam you will have about 1 to 2 minutes per question. That goes quick if you don’t quite know what you’re doing.
~~Continued in Part 2~~
Tags: oracle certification
Oracle is hosting a free Lunch and Learn Webinar on June 19th at 1:00 PM CST to discuss the benefits of certification. I’m sold on the benefits, but I’m tuning in to hear about the planned DBA certification offerings. I’m a certified Oracle DBA, so I definitely need to know what’s coming down the pike.
The agenda also includes information on their exam development. Sounds like interesting stuff to me. Registration is limited to 200, so I’d recommend you sign up now. (I chose the chicken salad box lunch for the event. Wonder if it will arrive on time?)
Tags: ccna, study checklist, subnetting
Welcome back to Week Three of my CCNA study checklist! This week we’ll cover the third objective, which is Implementing an IP addressing scheme and IP Services to meet network requirements in a medium-size Enterprise branch office network (whew, that’s a mouthful; who makes this stuff up?).
(In my previous post here, I took a broad look at the CCNA objectives. In this post, I covered Objective 1. Here’s Objective 2. The full list of CCNA objectives are posted on the Cisco website here: https://cisco.hosted.jivesoftware.com/community/certifications/ccna/ccna_exam?view=overview.)
OK, let’s get started.
First you should understand the difference between public and private IP addresses. This includes knowing:
- What the three ranges of private IP addresses are
- The purpose and benefits of private IP addresses
- How Network Address Translation (NAT) allows computers with private addresses access to the Internet and how to configure a router to perform NAT. You should understand the terms inside global, outside global, inside local and outside local.
• 10.0.0.0 – 10.255.255.255
• 172.16.0.0 – 172.31.255.255
• 192.168.0.0 – 192.168.255.255
• Increased security
• More efficient use of public IP addresses
You should feel comfortable using the following commands to configure a NAT router given a set of requirements, including the type of prompt where they are applied:
- ip nat inside and ip nat outside
- ip nat pool: you should know how this command can be combined with an access list to determine the local hosts that allowed to use the pool of public addresses. This includes knowing how to use wildcard masks to define the range of addresses allowed to use the pool of addresses. (If you need help with that topic, here’s a link: http://www.routerfreak.com/understanding-wild-card-masks/)
- overload parameter: you should know the purpose of this parameter when combined with ip nat inside
Hint and shameless self promotion: The Kaplan IT CCNA Simulator will teach you how do every aspect of these tasks.
You should understand how DHCP works and what the benefits of DHCP and DNS services are. This includes:
- Have knowledge of the packets that are used between the DHCP server (or router) and the DHCP client (DHCP discover, DHCP offer, DHCP request, DHCP ack) and the exact order they occur.
- You should feel comfortable using the following commands to configure a router to perform DHCP given a set of requirements:
- Also know the network command, the dns server command, and the lease command used for the purpose of defining the mask, the DNS server address, and the lease period for the computers that receive addresses from the DHCP router. These are executed after entering ip dhcp pool mode.
• service dhcp (this enables DHCP; the command is usually not required since it is enabled by default)
• ip dhcp excluded address
• ip dhcp pool name
You should be able to examine a network diagram labeled with interfaces and IP addressing information and use it to determine IP addressing problems. This includes problems like:
- • Incorrect IP addresses (usually outside of the subnet boundaries)
• Incorrect subnet masks (which result in the above)
• Incorrect gateway addresses
Make sure that you approach this problem in a systematic way. If, for example, Host 1 cannot ping Host 2, trace the entire route from Host 1 to Host 2 and determine at each juncture if the two interfaces required to communicate are in the same subnet. (Example: trace the address of Host 1 and the address of its gateway, the address of Router 1 and the address of Router 2, the address of Router 2 and the address of Host 2, etc.)
Be able to answer question about VLSM and its application to a network. Specifically, be able to:
- Determine the subnet mask that will yield a certain number of addresses without wasting any addresses. Example: what would be the subnet mask applied to a class C network that would yield at least 50 but not more than 100 addresses? ( hint 255.255.255.192 or /26)
- Determine if two ip addresses are in the same subnet given their addresses and masks. Example: are these two addresses in the same network: 192.168.1.62/26 and 192.168.1.65/26? (Answer: they aren’t.)
- Determine how many IP addresses are possible given the network ID (or subnet ID as some books call it) and the mask. Example: how many addresses are possible in the network 192.168.1.0/27? (Hint: 30)
If all of this is Greek to you, here’s a link to help: http://www.learntosubnet.com/
Be able to examine a network diagram for IP addressing problems and spot a situation where the mask is configured in such a way that there are not enough addresses for the computers.
Be able to summarize a given set of subnets and know the commands required to instruct a router to use the summarization in its advertisements. (If you have problems with the concept of route summarization, look for an upcoming blog post next week explaining that topic.)
Understand IP addressing backwards and forwards.
- Know the various methods for migrating to IPV6 from IPV4 and the methods of using both at the same time.
- Understand what dual stack and tunneling are and how they operate (protocols, hardware, etc).
- Be able to identify an IPV6 address when you see it and know the types of IPV6 addresses:
• Link-local (starts with FE8 to FEB)
• Site-local (start with FEC to FEF)
- Understand how IPV6 addresses are formatted and the rules to shorten them by eliminating zeros.
If all of this sounds like blah blah blah blah blah blah check this out:
(The above two categories make up the IPv6 equivalent of private IP addresses.)
• Global (starts with 2000::/3)
• Loopback (yes, the equivalent of 127.0.0.1 in IPv4) which is simply :: 1
• Unspecified (this is the address a computer has until a DHCP server gives it an IPv6 address), which is simply ::
Till next week – Happy Studying!
Tags: blogosphere, free stuff
If you are writing an IT blog, we want to visit. Not to worry. This isn’t the ”sleep on your couch until you throw us out” kind of visit. We just want to check out your blog. Leave us a comment with a link and we’ll come check it out.
If you would like to receive a FREE Transcender practice test to review on your blog or give away to a reader, leave us a comment. Nothing says love to your readers more than giveaways!
Tags: .NET 3.5, PMP, Project+, what we're working on, Windows 7
Along with the customer support emails, I read all of the product request emails. I’ve noticed that a large number of the requests are for products that we currently have in development anyway. As an easy and interactive way of keeping our customers in the development loop, I thought we would start running a monthly “What We’re Working On” blog post so you can see what’s upcoming before it’s released.
George is deep into Windows 7. The first Windows 7 exam (70-680 TS: Windows 7, Configuring) was in beta a few weeks ago, and all our developers took the exam. George has already begun writing those items. I don’t have a concrete release date yet for our product, simply because we don’t know when Microsoft intends to release the live exam, and we don’t typically release our product until they do. Hopefully, in the July Edition of WWWO, I’ll be able to give firm details for when our product will release. (In the meantime, you can review Windows 7 Feature Walkthroughs on the Microsoft Learning site.)
Josh is still working hard on the .NET 3.5 tracks. We’ve released several .NET exams this year, but we still have a few more to go to reach our goal. He’s currently developing our 70-563 product. Two weeks ago, we released 70-505 in both versions. We just released the 70-561 product in the C# version, and the VB version is about a week away from release. By the end of the year, we plan to release 70-653, 70-654, 70-655, 70-656, 70-657, 70-658, and 70-659. And in case you were wondering: no, Josh doesn’t sleep.
Robin is working on the new version of the PMI exam, the PMP 4th Edition. We’ve started limited development on that one because the exam doesn’t go live until the end of June. We are firmly committed to seeing the exam before developing content. That way we are sure you have the best exam prep experience possible. I am scheduled to take it the first week of its release. In July, we’ll announce a release date for our PMI 4th Edition product.
In conjunction with the PMP exam, Robin is working our new Project+ practice test. We took the exam in April and May and loved what we saw. There are many new terms and new concepts, but we’re tackling them for you. If you haven’t added this crendential to your set of titles, consider it. All IT professionals need project management skills, even if you are using Agile methodologies. You still have to work with other departments that are using traditional means of project managment. Think seriously about tackling this one for the sake of your own knowledge (and for the added boost to your resume as well).
Oracle has released a lot of new exams lately. We’re considering adding more Oracle titles to our offerings. Let us know if you have any requests for Oracle certifications you’re considering. And please, if you have any other requests, comment here or email firstname.lastname@example.org. We’re here to support your IT certification efforts and if we’re missing something you need, let us know.
- Jennifer Wagner
Tags: ccna, study checklist
The CCNA objectives are posted on the Cisco website here: https://cisco.hosted.jivesoftware.com/community/certifications/ccna/ccna_exam?view=overview. I will use them as a framework to discuss the topics where you should focus your attention. Do not attempt the test without knowing the following items. (Needless to say, NO actual live exam items were revealed in the making of this list.)
Objective 2: Configure, verify, and troubleshoot a switch with VLANs and interswitch communications
Cable questions should be easy. You should know the three cable types and when each type is called for:
- Crossover cables
- Rolled (console) cables
- Straight-through cables
Do you know what cable type is required to connect two switches? (Answer: Crossover.) The general rule is use a crossover to connect like devices (router to router) and straight-through to connect unlike devices. Rollover or console cables are used to connect to the serial or console port on the router or switch to manage the router or switch.
You should know that CSMA/CD is the contention method used in Ethernet, and you should understand how it works.
You should be able to examine a network diagram and state the number of collision and broadcast domains present in the network by recognizaing the types of devices present. Remember, each router interface is a broadcast domain and each switch port is a collision domain. Hubs are one collision domain, regardless of the number of ports.
You should how switches forward frames. Specifically you should know:
- How switches populate the MAC address table
- Where a frame will be forwarded based on the current state of its MAC table
- That switches forward frames based on MAC addresses, not IP addresses (Layer2, remember?)
You should know how to configure a switch. Specifically you should know how to:
- Log in to the switch
- Name the switch
- Create VLANs and assign switch ports to the VLANs
- Create trunk ports
- Assign an address to the switch for management purposes
- Telnet into the switch remotely
- Save the configuration
You should know how to use the following commands for troubleshooting and be able to recognize the command output of each: ping, traceroute, telnet, SSH, arp, ipconfig
You should know the theory and basic operation of the major routing protocols (OSPF, RIPv1 and v2, IGRP, EIGRP, etc).
You should know how VTP and RSTP work, including:
- The purposes of these two protocols
- The definition of a root bridge, and how to determine the root bridge by examining a diagram that shows the addresses of the interfaces, the priorities, and the cabling setup
- The effect on a network with an existing configuration when a new bridge is introduced to the network, and what information is determined by examining the configuration version numbers of the switches already present
- The differences between a switch in server mode, one in client mode, and one in transparent mode
You should know how VLANs work. Specifically, you should know:
- Their purpose
- How to configure them on a switch
- What is required to get traffic from one VLAN to another (a router)
- What a trunk link is and its purpose
- How to create a trunk to the router and to other switches
You should be able to examine a diagram and determine why routing between VLANs is not working. You should know to check:
- That the computers in each VLAN are in the same subnet with the interface of the router dedicated to each VLAN
- That each computer is set to use the router interface dedicated to its VLAN as its default gateway
- That the subnet masks of the computers and the gateway are the same
You should be able to recognize and interpret the output of common show and debug commands such as:
- show mac-address-table
- show interfaces
- show controllers
- show running-config
- show spanning-tree
For example, do you recognize the command that yielded this output?
Port 2 (FastEthernet0/2)
Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec
Bridge ID Priority 32769 (priority 32768 sys-id-ext 1)
Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec
Aging Time 300
Interface Role Sts Cost Prio.Nbr Type
———- —- — —- ——– ———
Fa0/1 Desg FWD 19 128.1 P2p
Fa0/2 Root FWD 19 128.2 P2p
Fa0/10 Desg FWD 19 128.10 P2p
Switch# show cdp neighbors
Capability Codes: R – Router, T – Trans Bridge, B – Source Route Bridge
S – Switch, H – Host, I – IGMP, r – Repeater
Device ID Local Intrfce Holdtme Capability Platform Port ID
SwitchB Fa0/1 113 S 2560 Fa0/5
SwitchC Fa0/2 142 S 3570 Fa0/24
SwitchD Fa0/10 122 S 2560 Fa0/22
Know basic concepts such as traffic management, switching, switch operation, switching technologies, switch security, and troubleshooting.
You should know how to secure the ports on a switch and why you would do so. Know the specific use of these commands: switchport port-security and switchport port-security mac-address sticky. Know what “sticky” means when you use that argument.
Don’t forget that our Kaplan IT CCNA Simulator is one of the only tools for the home user that lets you play with a fully functional simulated network AND run exercises tailored to studying for the CCNA.
Tags: test-pass guarantee
Just a friendly reminder that the Microsoft Second Shot and Career Assist promotion will end this month, so you only have 27 more days to take advantage of the offer.
To register for Second Shot, you first register on the Microsoft website using the link above. Once registered, you can click to download a voucher for your particular exam type (IT professional exam, developer certification exam, or Microsoft Dynamics certification exam). Print and retain your voucher number. During the process you’ll also be given a voucher code for a $35 e-Learning course as part of the Career Assist promotion.
When you’re ready to schedule an exam, go to the Prometric website and use the Second Shot voucher number. (If by chance you schedule your exam through Prometric’s website before you sign up with Second Shot, you’ll still have a chance to sign up for the promtion during the scheduling process.)
In all fairness, we should point out Transcender’s own guarantee. We offer an industry-best, pass-the-first-time guarantee on all of our practice tests. If you fail an exam within 90 days of purchasing the corresponding practice test, you can contact us for a complete refund… and there is no expiration date on this offer. (Or, as Josh points out, ”Use Transcender to focus yourself on test content, and then you won’t even need the Second Shot at all!”)
On the heels of several announcements from Microsoft in the past month, we have confirmed that 83-640 TS: Windows Server 2008, Active Directory Configuring – the version utilizing performance-based testing – is released in the U.S. (For a recap of the differences between 70-640 and 83-640, check our previous blog post.)
The test’s release was actually announced right after Tech*Ed, but at the time we couldn’t find 83-640 offered on Prometric’s site. Today, however, it’s official: you can register for the 83-640 in the U.S. — and, in fact, several of our team plan to do so (with our shiny Get on the Bus free exam vouchers, no less).
Microsoft has announced a phased roll-out for 83-640 in other countries throughout 2009. We have confirmed the release of this exam in English in the U.S., Canada, Ireland, and Singapore. If you are in other countries, I strongly suggest you contact Prometric directly to ask which test is being offered in your country and preferred language, and to ask if 70-640 has been deprecated in your area.
Need help prepping for this new testing experience? Check out our offering for the 83-640 exam. Along with our award-winning questions, it includes our own performance-based testing engine that mimics Microsoft’s virtual lab testing environment.